In a study of 20 healthy volunteers, hand wiping with or without an alcohol-based solution was found inferior to hand rubbing with an alcohol-based solution in reducing microbial contmaination on hands.
Professor Kampf has published a very useful systematic review of the spectrum of virucidal activity of ethanol in solution or as commercially available products.
In a recent lancet article, Rook et al examine our place within the microbial world. They conclude that it amounts to a tug-of-war between managing beneficial microbes, excluding harmful ones, and diverting as much energy as available into other essential functions.
A new study shows that rubber ducks used as bath-time toys can be a reservoir of bacteria and fungi. The study showed that the liquid released when ducks were squeezed contained potentially pathogenic bacteria in 12 out of 19 toys studied.
A 2018 study shows how microbial modelling can be used to assess the effectiveness risk of hand and surface hygiene in preventing transmission of norovirus infection from person to person via hands and surfaces. In the UK up to 3 million people suffer a bout of norovirus vomiting and diarrhoea e